Flowers grouped into heads Asteraceae
Burr not formed around the fruits at maturity
Florets all tubular or filiform and tubular (Fig. 41) or; florets with ligule present but the ligule less than 3mm
Pappus of several to many soft simple or plumose hairs or bristles equal to or exceeding the length of the cypselas (Fig. 41)
Pappus absent or consisting of a few short spines, or of rigid bristles or scales, or reduced to a short rim, or the cypselas surmounted by a hardened spiny style (Fig. 41)