Ovules (and seeds) borne naked on sporophylls (or on scales projecting from sporophylls, which are usually arranged in cones. Microsporophylls bearing the pollen sacs also arranged in cones. Pollen deposited directly on the ovule Gymnosperms
Leaves pinnate Cycadophyta
Pinnae all about the same size or abruptly reduced towards the base. Leaves 2–12 in the crown, up to 100 cm long. Stems sunken in the ground
Rhachis very twisted (360o or more). Pinnae ± spreading with a pale or reddish slightly callous base; petiole rounded or flattened. Male cones cylindrical to ellipsoid, 8–25 cm long, 4–6 cm diam. Female cones ovoid to cylindrical, 10–25 cm long, 7–9 cm diam. Seeds c. 3 cm long, red when ripe. Northern parts of coast; Hunter River Valley. Open forest Macrozamia flexuosa
Rhachis straight or twisted through an angle of up to 180o