Dioecious or monoecious shrubs or trees with wiry articulate branchlets. Leaves reduced to ridges on the stems projecting at each node into whorls of teeth which are connate below. Flowers unisexual. Male flowers in whorls of cylindrical spikes, each flower with 2 bracteoles placed laterally; perianth segments 1–2, oblong, deciduous, usually hooded over the single stamen. Female flowers in globular or ovoid spikes, terminating very short lateral branches, each flower with 2 lateral bracteoles; perianth absent; ovary 1-locular, superior. Fruit a winged nut held between the woody bracteoles until shed. The whole fruiting structure known as a cone. 4 gen. Aust., Pacific and Malaysia.N.B. Two genera are recognized in the area. The features that easily distinguish them are found only on the female plants of this largely dioecious family. To count the number of teeth in each whorl most easily, break branchlet at a node leaving the teeth as a crown on the broken stump.