Stems green, jointed, ridged; leaves reduced to a whorl of scale-like teeth at each joint Casuarinaceae
Bracteoles of cone thinly woody and without a dorsal protuberance; extending well beyond the cone body giving the cone a "spiky" appearance even before opening. Mature nut grey or yellowish brown, dull, not glossy. Teeth on the branchlets in whorls of 8–20 Casuarina
Teeth on branchlets 12–16 in each whorl. Branchlets erect or ascending; 0.9–1.2 mm diam. Cone cylindrical, often pubescent, mostly c. 12 mm diam. Tree. Coast; Cumberland Plain; Hunter River Valley. Near salt water estuaries; along sluggish creeks; occasionally on rising ground. Swamp Oak (Intermediate forms between C. cunninghamiana and C. glauca occur) Casuarina glauca
Teeth on branchlets 8–10 in each whorl. Branchlets 0.4–4.6 mm diam. Cones globular, mostly c. 8 mm diam. Small or large trees. Banks of fresh water streams. River Oak Casuarina cunninghamianacunninghamiana