Osmundaceae >

Sporangia non-soral, exindusiate, in oblong or oval patches which are later mostly confluent. Stipes with 2 basal flap-like expansions. Terrestrial, often arborescent ferns with short, hard, erect, non-scaly trunks or rhizomes Osmundaceae
Mature fronds coriaceous, non-transparent, light green, usually 0.6–2.4 m long including the stipes; stomates present. Sporangia in oval or oblong masses along the minor veinlets, later usually confluent and covering almost the whole of the lower surface of the fronds Todea