Ovules (and seeds) borne naked on sporophylls (or on scales projecting from sporophylls, which are usually arranged in cones. Microsporophylls bearing the pollen sacs also arranged in cones. Pollen deposited directly on the ovule Gymnosperms
Leaves pinnate Cycadophyta
Pinnae progressively reduced in size and becoming spine-like towards the base of the leaf; bases of the pinnae never red. Leaves mostly 20–100 in number, 0.7–2.5 m long; rhachis not twisted. Stems mostly sunken, except in shallow soils where they are sometimes 1–2m high.
Pinnae all about the same size or abruptly reduced towards the base. Leaves 2–12 in the crown, up to 100 cm long. Stems sunken in the ground