Plants terrestrial or aquatic. Stems with mesarch protoxylum, leaf gaps present. Leaves usually well developed with a complex vasculature or enations lacking a vascular strand Psilotaceae Roots branched with root hairs or unbranched and lacking root hairs Psilotaceae and Ophioglossaceae Sporangia usually borne on the undersurface of leaves, on specialised fertile segments of leaves, in the axils of scale-like leaves Psilotaceae or in cone-like structures Equisetaceae Gametophytes photosynthetic or non photosynthetic Psilotaceae and Ophioglossaceae).N.B. Monilophyta of this region are represented by approx. 130 species distributed amongst 27 families and 54 genera. Most of these ferns and fern allies grow in rainforests but others are found in open forests, heathland, swamps or lagoons, along creeks and rivers or at the edge of water-holes in fields. Some species are epiphytic on tree-trunks, occurring high in the branches, others are terrestrial on the forest floor or growing in rock-crevices.Specimens of monilophytes should be collected with the rhizome (if present), as the hairs and/or scales of this organ are important in the identification of these plants. In tree ferns the lower portion of the stipe with the basal tuft of scales or hairs is essential. Wherever possible, spore bearing organs of monilophytes should be collected, as most keys are largely based on the characteristics of the sori and/or sporangia.